We will use the following kicks in our lessons:
- Exercise kicks
- Front kick
- Side kick
- Knee kick
- Rear kick
- Roundhouse kick
- Crescent kick
- Hook kick
- Stomp kick
- Drop kick
- Jump front kick
- Jump side kick
- Thrust kick
- Wheel kick
This page will discuss the common factors which must be kept in mind when performing any kick.
Koshi and Sokutō
Depending on the kick, the foot will contact the target with either your koshi, your sokutō, or your heel. While the first two require some explanation, the heel should be obvious.
The koshi (literally: “middle-foot”) is the ball of the foot, between the arch and the big toe. In karate, the majority of your body weight should be focused on the balls of your feet, like a cat, for optimum balance and mobility. Front kick, front exercise kick, jump front kick, roundhouse kick, and inside crescent kick all use the koshi to damage an opponent’s vital points.
Unlike many Korean and Korean-influenced martial arts, Goshin-Jutsu karateka do not strike with their insteps, as they are one of the weak points of the human body. One of our contributors, Mr. Zielinski, once sparred a Tae Kwon Do stylist who charged at him with a large, looping kick, hell-bent on crushing him with his instep. Mr. Zielinski did not block, parry, evade, or counter; he merely turned his elbow to the side. When the Tae Kwon Do man’s instep struck Mr. Zielinski’s elbow, it broke with a sickening crack. The point of this anecdote is this -- Mr. Zielinski did not break that man’s foot; that man broke his foot on Mr. Zielinski. Think about that -- then, kick with the ball of the foot.
To form the koshi, curl your toes back, and turn your ankle downward, so that your instep is in-line with your shin, like a ballerina. Failing to accentuate the koshi will cause your kicks to strike with the tips of your toes. Unless you are wearing steel-toed workbooks, these “toe-kicks” will painfully sprain or break your toes, leaving your without a leg to stand on.
The sokutō (literally: “foot-sword”) is the blade or knife-edge of the foot. This is the outer edge of the foot, opposite the arch, running from the little toe to the heel. Side kick, side exercise kick, jump side kick, outside crescent kick, drop kick, and stomp kick all use the sokutō to damage an opponent’s vital points.
To form the sokutō, raise your big toe up, curl your other toes down, and turn your ankle so that the ball of your foot points inward. Failing to accentuate the sokutō will cause your kicks to strike with entire bottom of your foot, dissipating the blow over a larger area, decreasing the pressure and damage done to your opponent. For best results, try to aim your techniques such that they make contact within 3” (~ 7.5 cm) from your heel. This ensures that your little toe is out of the way, and remains undamaged.
Advantages and Disadvantages
Kicking is a critical skill for a number of reasons:
- Legs have twice the reach of an arm. A tall or gangly person who is skilled at kicking can rain pain upon their opponents from a safe distance. The shorter person is unable to kick back, as their stubby legs will not reach, nor can they get close enough to strike or grapple without getting hit. Likewise, shorter and stockier students can use kicks as atemi to help close in on their opponents.
- Kicks are powerful. The legs contain the largest, most powerful muscles in the entire body. Kicks can have 4-5 times the power of a punch (Comparing the amount of weight one can lift in the bench press or military press to that of squats or the leg press will make this clear). A well-placed kick can break boards -- and bones -- with ease.
- Kicks have an intrinsic element of surprise. People typically expect to get punched in the nose during the course of a fight, but they do not expect to be kicked in the side of the knee.
However, kicking also presents a number of disadvantages, which must also be addressed:
- Kicks can throw you off-balance. Every kick, at the moment of greatest extension and final impact, involves the kicker’s leg sticking straight out, while standing on one foot. Although you may not be in this awkward position for long, it will occur. An opponent, after successfully blocking or deflecting your kick, can use your leg as a lever for superior manhandling -- and without balance, there no defense.
- There is a “dead time” following every kick. The reciprocal action of one punch sets up the next punch, but with kicks, we run into logistics issues. If you kick with one leg, you can’t follow-up with the other -- that’s what’s holding you up! After throwing a kick, there is a “dead time” -- you are completely vulnerable when rechambering kicks. While one could throw hand techniques, they would performed on one foot, making them intrinsically weak. A skilled fighter, having narrowly avoided a kick, can stick to an opponent’s foot like a coat of paint, and follow their rechamber in to close the distance. Then, the defender will be too close to attack with a follow-up kick.
[video of following a kick in.]
- Effective kicking requires lots of practice. Unless you explicitly train to use kicks in fights, you will not be able to do so. There is no other exercise, game, or daily activity that is similar to martial arts kicking; it is an oddly-specific and technically complex skill. There is no way to develop kicking ability other than to spending lots of time learning how to kick.
The above-listed shortcomings will always give the opponent a chance to block, deflect, or avoid your kicks. This becomes easier as more and more kicks are thrown in a series, since your stances will inevitably become slightly sloppier with each progressive kick. It is imperative that you never perform more than three or four techniques without momentarily stopping to recheck your stance; the best way to maintain your balance is to never lose it.
Additionally, Goshin-Jutsu resolves some of the problems inherent in kicks by favoring low kicks over high kicks. Rarely do we ever kick above the level of the floating ribs. The height of a kick is inversely proportional to its power. Kicks grow weaker as they grow higher, since most of their energy is lost in the fight against gravity to reach head-level. Also, lower kicks will always be faster than high kicks, since they travel along a shorter path. For us, high kicking is simply a form of exercise.
Most of the kicking techniques in Goshin-Jutsu are a four-point process. Slowly practice each step individually, and then put them all together. Speed is for rabbits and fools. Instead, concentrate on proper form, and performing it as smooth and fluid as possible. Remember, slow is smooth, and smooth is fast. We implore you to practice slowly at first. Emphasizing speed over form will never make you into a better martial artist -- instead, you will just suck faster.
The four points are:
- Chambering -- the necessary setup needed to execute kicking.
- Kicking -- This is the easiest part.
- Re-chambering -- Recovering from a kick. Standing with one foot extended is an awkward and compromising position. As a rule, kicks should return twice as fast as they went out. While this will not solve the problem, it will mitigate it. Resist the urge to use your kick as a giant step; save stepping for Point 4. By immediately returning to the chambered position after kicking, you have the option of throwing additional kicks.
- Stepping out -- the act of transitioning to another stance after kicking.
When you are done kicking, you can set your kicking leg behind you, and enter a front stance or fighting stance. Alternately, you can set your kicking foot right next to your support foot (in a sort of bent-knees attention stance) and then slide the kicking foot out into a front or fighting stance. What you will not do -- ever, for any reason -- is to step forward directly from crane stance into some other stance. Using your kick as a giant step causes you to lean, transferring a portion of your weight to a leg that isn’t touching the ground. If this happens, a clever or skilled opponent can swat your foot aside with a well-timed leg sweep, toppling you instantly.
You can cover more ground by kicking with the front leg. The only way to maintain stability and kick with the front leg is to take a step, and then kick -- a “step-up kick.” Most kicks in Goshin-Jutsu Karatedō are step-up kicks. The most important consideration when performing a step-up front kick is that the rear foot must step up exactly next to the front foot. If you step past the front foot, then it is no longer a step-up kick -- it becomes a rear-leg kick thrown from a really crappy front stance. Likewise, taking too short of a step will also leave you in a poor front stance, and kicking with your still-weighted front leg will result in a slow kick and a loss of balance.
Step-up kicks can be made more efficient by combining the step-up and chambering steps into one motion. However, this requires a high level of coordination and form, so it is reserved for advanced students.
[video step-up kicks front the front and side, chambering as you step up, fast and slow.]